Types of Roses & Pruning
Roses need full sun, at least six hours per day.
Large, many petalled, single or double flowers, usually alone and occasionally in clusters of three to five. Blooms are usually held singly on straight long stems that are good for cutting. Many are fragrant. Ideally used in formal rose beds. Always grafted, 60 to 125 cm tall.
The largest-blooming and showiest type. Flowers are large like the hybrid teas, but produced in cluster like the Floribundas. Vigorous and tall, from 100 to 200 cm. Always grafted.
Greatly under-valued and under-used. Modern shrub roses, derived in some cases from native roses that are free of disease and insect problems, are extremely hardy and require no special care. Some are as neat as Floribunda, with flowers as large as Hybrid Tea and many are fragrant. Include shrub roses in the border with lilac, forsythia, and mock orange. As an informal flowering hedge or privacy screen, they are unsurpassed. The bright red fruits of some varieties add colour in the fall and winter.
Blooms range from singles to fully double, produced in clusters. The blooming period is maintained throughout the year. Hardier than Hybrid Teas, although the flowers are smaller. Very showy when mass-planted in beds, or spot them through a foundation planting. 40 to 100 cm tall, usually grafted.
Sports or mutations of bush roses. The flowers may be single or double, of Hybrid Tea or Floribunda Type, according to parentage. The main shoots should be trained as horizontally as possible, resulting in the growth of lateral branches. These laterals will grow upward to provide height and cover and it is here the flowers will be produced.
As soon as thawing permits, take away the evergreen boughs or remove the rose collars. Somewhat later, remove the soil and rough prune by cutting winter-killed tips down to the live wood. When the yellow flowers of Forsythia are in bloom, your roses should be showing signs of life. The buds should be swelling and quite obvious but showing no leaves. At this time, cut out all dead stems, twiggy growth and retain only three or four strong canes at the most. Cut these down to about 15 cm and cut within 6 mm of an outward-facing bud.
PRUNING TO ENCOURAGE REFLOWERING
Observe the arrangement of the leaves on the rose stem. Under the flower will probably be a single leaf and then sets of leaves with three leaflets and then a series of leaves with five leaflets. Do not simply remove the dead flower, but cut quite low in the stem to the five-leaflet leaves. This form of pruning in mid-summer results in strong, vigorous, fast replacement of new blossoms and is practiced by the cut flower rose trade. Remember to cut an outward-facing bud. The bud originates in the corner where the leaves emerge.
SPRING AND SUMMER
Plant the bud union 5 cm below the soil line.
Fertilize with Transplanter 5-15-5.
After three or four weeks, change to a brand name rose food. Established roses should be fed every week from early spring to late August. On the premise that prevention is easier than a cure, spray once per week with insecticide/fungicide.
FALL OR EARLY WINTER
Change from rose food to 0-0-20 (straight potassium) for overwintering vigour. Let the last flowers go to seed; do not prune.
When the ground is frozen, (not too early, mid- to late November) hill up the rose canes with soil, which you have kept unfrozen for this specific purpose, to a height of 45 cm. Do not prune at this time, unless the canes are so tall they could whip about in the winter winds, thereby damaging themselves or disturbing the hill of protective soil. Leave as much cane as possible. In beds or in mass plantings, rose collars are a must, — they are easy to use and reduce the amount of soil required. Where collars are not used, the hill of soil, once frozen, should be covered with evergreen boughs after Christmas so that the soil remains frozen and does not thaw in mild spells.
THE FOLLOWING SPRING
Remove the collar and then the soil as it thaws.
Cut back the strongest canes to 10 or 15 cm, cutting to an outward facing bud.
Start to fertilize when growth begins. Everblooming roses need to be well nourished.
The rose bed or planting hole should be well-prepared. Dig deep, at least 45 cm. The soil should be two parts sandy clay loam, one part well-composted manure and one part peat moss, plus 4 kg of bonemeal for every 10 square metres or, a cupful for each plant.
For disease- and insect-free roses, a combination fungicide/insecticide spray should be applied every week, commencing in spring as soon as buds begin to swell and growth begins.
Start thinking of over-wintering your roses in mid-July at the time of your last fertilization. The rose canes should be allowed to harden off; they should not be succulent. Reduce the watering schedule in the fall. Allow the last flush of flowers on the plant to go to seed.
DEPTH OF PLANTING
Choice roses are produced by budding selected types to hardy rootstock. The bud union, which may look like a swollen portion at the bottom of the canes, should, in our Canadian climate, be planted one or two inches below the soil. Be aware that American or English publications may specify the union above the soil.
Roses should be watered deeply and well once per week. The best method in beds is to use a trickle hose that can be left on running slowly on the ground, thereby avoiding wetting of the foliage and splattering of the soil.
Newly planted, potted roses shouldbe fertilized with diluted transplanter. Follow the label’s instructions. Established roses should be fertilized with a name brand rose food. These formulations contain many trace elements essential to the roses health. Apply in early May, mid-June and again in mid-July.
Cocoa bean shells make an excellent mulch for roses. They dress the bed, conserve moisture and keep down weeds. Other suitable mulches include bark chunks or shredded bark.
Store in a shaded area, keep roots evenly moist.
BALLED AND BURLAP
Plant any trees, shrubs, and evergreens, with the burlap/wire basket still on the roots.
SIZE OF PLANTING HOLE
Dig the planting hole at least 12cm larger than the root ball on all sides.
Leave the fibre pot on, make three cuts halfway up from the bottom of pot before planting.
Water thoroughly before removing the container.
PLANTING IN CLAY SOILS
To ensure drainage, enlarge the size of the hole and raise the level of planting 5-8cm above ground level using soil.
WATERING AFTER PLANTING
Plants grown in plastic pots need more frequent watering, check often. Deep watering is encouraged.
MULCHING AFTER PLANTING
Mulching your plants is encouraged.
STEPS TO SUCCESS
1. Plant the tree or shrub no deeper than it grew at the nursery.
2. It is necessary to plant trees and evergreens in a soil that offers good drainage. Therefore, if you are planting in an area with heavy clay soil, you must make certain modifications before planting.
3. It is vital to dig your planting hole at least 12 cm larger than the root ball on all sides to allow for soil enrichments before planting.
4. The high phosophorous Transplanter type fertilizer is
the only appropriate fertilizer to be used in the first season.
5. A good soil mix is 50 per cent soil, 25 per cent peat moss, 25 per cent manure.
6. You can help to prevent permanent damage or discoloration caused by desiccation (drying out) of evergreens by watering thoroughly in the fall, before freeze-up.
7. Water only when the soil feels dry to the touch, 5-8 cm down into the root area. Continue this form of watering until the plant is well established and growing. Divert downspouts and sprinklers away from planting area.
ROSE CARE & PRUNING
“On the wall of the Cathedral of Hildesheim in Germany there is a rose that is thought to be at least one thousand years old. Legend states that as long as the city is prosperous, the rose is destined to survive.”
Ah, roses! The story of the rose is deeply entwined with mystery and allure. It is the symbol of romance, the inspiration for poetry and quotes, and a flower that is truly rich in history and culture. Simple and elegant, roses are the perennial classic cut flower.
The classic flower may seem a bit adventurous for the beginner gardener. However, this perennial beauty is not to be feared. In fact, with a few simple tips (and full sun), you can have a garden that boasts a bounty of blooms.
LET’S START OFF WITH A FEW ROSE FACTS:
- Roses love their sun. For bountiful blooms and healthy growth, make sure that your rose garden has at least 6 hours of direct sunlight a day
• To maintain that classic, polished look, prune your plants in early spring
• Plant in an area with good drainage (roses don’t like soggy roots), and a healthy organic soil mix like Garden Gallery’s Organic Triple Mix
• Keep your plants healthy with a regular supply of nutrients.
- Rose petals and their fruit rose hips are an excellent source of Vitamin C. Add petals to a salad, make rose hips jam, or simply soak the petals in water for a fragrant cooling mist.
• Roses like a lot of sunshine on their flowers but for their roots to stay cool. To do this add mulch each springtime to keep the roots in the shade.
• Roses need a regular dose of nutrients to keep those flowers blooming. Garden Gallery’s Rose Food will provide rose shrubs with the ideal nutrient balance.
• Roses don’t like the cold so make sure that they are protected each fall.
THE CLASSIC BEAUTY: HYBRID TEA ROSE
Close your eyes and picture a rose – that rose that you’re thinking of is most likely a hybrid tea. Often seen in formal English gardens, this classic flower has large, fragrant blooms, which burst open at the end of a long single stem. This unique quality is what makes the hybrid tea an ideal cut flower. As an added benefit, most varieties of hybrid teas will bloom a few times each season filling a space with fragrance and colour.
For best results: Plant your hybrid tea with Garden Gallery’s Organic Triple Mix and fertilize regularly with Garden Gallery Rose Food.
BOUNTIFUL BLOOMS: FLORIBUNDA
Perfect for a classic English garden, this low maintenance variety will fill your garden with continuous blooms. The flowers of this less tamed variety of rose grow in clusters making a perfect choice for borders.
For best results: Prune Floribundas in early spring to give it a healthy start to the growing season.
MAJESTIC BLOOMS: GRANDIFLORA
This showpiece is the offspring of elegant Hybrid Tea and bountiful bloomer Floribunda. Depending on the variety, each stem will either have one bloom (similar to Hybrid Tea) or a cluster (usually 3 to 5 blooms per stem). This hardy variety requires room to grow, at least 30 inches, lots of sunshine, and good drainage. The height of this shrub, 3 to 5 feet, makes a stunning backdrop.
For best results: Prune Grandiflora throughout the growing season for beautiful blooms all summer long.
A NATURAL BEAUTY: SHRUB ROSES
This hardy beauty is underestimated. However, its resiliency (they are often bred from native plants that are free of pests and disease) and gorgeous blooms makes it the ideal beginner rose. Plant this bush as a single plant or plant several to create a gorgeous border.
For best results: Add a boost of Garden Gallery Rose Food at least once a month.
A TRELLIS OF TREASURES: CLIMBING ROSES
Add height to your rose garden, by adding in a climbing rose variety. Bred from both the Hybrid Tea and Floribunda species, these vertical growing beauties can be trained to grow on a trellis. Secure and train the extra long canes onto a trellis to help your climbing rose grow vertically.
For best results: Provide plenty of room for this expansive beauty to grow.
SOLVING THE PRUNING PUZZLE
For best results, most varieties of roses should be pruned in Early Spring. However, giving a trim amongst a bed of thorns can be a little tricky. So, dress well, long pants and a long sleeved shirt, and equip yourself with the right gear, including a protective pair of garden gloves and high quality bypass pruning shears. Once the pruning is done, protect your plant by applying a pruning sealer to the fresh cuts. This will help avoid rot or rose borers from entering the wound.
THE BENEFITS OF PRUNING
- Keeps the shapes of the plant
• Improves the overall health of the plant by removing diseased, damaged or dead growth
• Frequent pruning develops larger, but fewer blooms. Infrequent pruning does the opposite, smaller blooms, but more of them
• Helps focus the nutrients towards the blooms
• Encourages new growth, and in turn flowers.
REASON NO 1:
PRUNE TO MAINTAIN HEALTHY GROWTH
At the bare minimum, all roses should be pruned in the early spring. This will help remove and dead or damaged growth, while also prompting new growth. Trim your roses when the buds are swelling, but before any leaves begin to grow.
Remove all dead and straggly branches, and trim the remaining few canes to about 15 cm. Once the pruning is finished, apply a pruning sealer and Garden Gallery Rose Fertilizer so that your plant has the nutrients that it needs to produce new growth.
REASON NO 2:
PRUNE FOR NEW BLOOMS
Most types of roses will have a few flushes (when a plant blooms) throughout the growing season. Help your rose plant develop new growth, by removing the previous growth once it has died. When removing the growth, don’t just remove the dead flower. Instead cut the stem on an angle back to the first five leaf junction. Once pruned, remember to seal it with a pruning sealant and give it a boost of Garden Gallery Rose Fertilizer.
Roses will instantly add a burst of beauty to your garden to the sunny, slightly acidic, places in your garden. Although they can appear intimidating, these shrubs thrive in our hot, sunny summers. The only challenge remaining is choosing which variety you will add to your landscape.